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dc.contributor.author Maruatona, T.
dc.date.accessioned 2011-06-03T08:37:03Z
dc.date.available 2011-06-03T08:37:03Z
dc.date.issued 2004-01-24
dc.identifier.citation Maruatona, T. (2004) State hegemony and the planning and implementation of literacy education in Botswana, International Journal of Educational Development, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 53-65 en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0738-0593
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10311/820
dc.description.abstract Planning adult literacy education in developing nations is largely viewed as a technical process reserved for government officials at the Ministry of Education. This empirical study argues that in Botswana, state sponsored adult literacy asserts its hegemony and stifles learner participation and district initiatives. The paper provides an overview of the socio-economic and political situation in Botswana arguing that in spite of being a liberal democracy, the planning and implementation of adult literacy education is driven by central government officials and views learners as having similar experiences and treats them as passive consumers. It fails to employ literacy education to address social disparities based on ethnicity and gender. Finally, the paper suggests that the planning should be decentralized and use a participatory approach. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Elsevier, http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/homepage.cws_home en_US
dc.subject Centralisation en_US
dc.subject Decentralisation en_US
dc.subject Literacy en_US
dc.subject Transformation en_US
dc.subject Hegemony en_US
dc.subject Resistance en_US
dc.title State hegemony and the planning and implementation of literacy education in Botswana en_US
dc.type Published Article en_US
dc.link http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VD7-4B8K9FP-C/2/b6a92ca0f0632ae3ef821f8e0ed73324 en_US


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